TOD Standard is a powerful tool that allows shaping and assessing urban development. It focuses on maximum use of the benefits of public transport and non-motorized mobility, simultaneously paying special attention to users – the people.
TOD Transit-Oriented Development (development, oriented towards public transport)
In urban development, this term defines planning of residential, commercial (office and trade) development with easy access to public transport within a walking distance (400-800 m). Therefore, TOD aims at enhancing efficiency of public transport by cutting private car use and favoring sustainable urban development.
Transport-oriented development usually provides for a central stop or hub (for instance, railway station or underground, stops of urban electric transport or buses), surrounded by the development of mixed use with high density, and from this center it spreads further, to the districts of lower density. The TOD was also developed to be more suitable for walking, unlike other built-up areas, as its blocks were designed smaller and less area were allotted for the cars.
The standard, developed by the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP) – non-governmental non-profit organization that promotes development of BRT – Bus Rapid Transit, cycling, walking and non-motorized transport. Other programs include parking reform, traffic demand management, as well as global climate and transport policy. ITDP was founded in 1985 in New York. According to its mission stetement, ITDP is committed to “promoting sustainable and equitable transportation worldwide.”
It was approved, in particular, by the United Nations Organization (UN) and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH.
The TOD Standard asserts rights of all the people for access to the city: safe walking and cycling, easy and affordable reach to the most remote destination via high-speed and frequently running public transport, as well as living the good life without the car-dependence. This is a principle of access to opportunities, education, services and other resources, attainable for free or with low-cost mobility options.
The standard defines eight major urban development and land use principles, where each is supported by specific goals to be reached, as well as easily measured indicators and metrics. All in all, they favor safe, balanced and self-sustainable areas around the stops; short and well-connected pedestrian and bicycle networks; density that provides reliable client bases for local services and public transport; decrease of car traffic and parking arrangement.
8 principles of TOD standard
- Public transport
The transit-oriented development (TOD) is a response to the unstable, car-dependent urban and suburban developments with low-quality of public transport that was peculiar to global urbanization of the previous century.
It also presents a contrast to development of infrastructure for public transport that has recently been unfavorable for developing the walking and biking environment needed to complement and actively support the use of public transport.
This Standard is a tool for assessing relevance as well as guidance for integrating the sustainable transport system development processes with land use design and planning. It is targeted at the broad circle of stakeholders, interested in urban development, including the government, developers and investors, constructors and designers, sustainable development activists and interested citizen. Providing an opportunity for prompt assessment of the planning and design components, key to successful development, the Standard is a critical document, supplementing the already available tool kit that will help performing the pressing task – provide the growing urban population worldwide with the residential space.
Key areas of the Standard application include:
- making assessment of possibility and appropriateness of walking and biking around the city, as well as how transit-oriented the completed projects of urban development are;
- making assessment of the projects on the stages of planning and design in order to find omissions and potential for improvements;
- making assessment of the present or planned districts, served by the station of high-speed PT, to find potential for improvement and investments, and
- development of rules and regulations as regards to urban planning, transport planning, land use, urban development and parking arrangement.
By creating the universally applicable base, grounded on the key principles of arranging transport in the urban life, this Standard allows comparing peculiarities of specific projects and plans with the renowned, for today, best cases from the global practice, like Central Saint Giles in London, Massena District in Paris, Hammarby Sjöstad in Stockholm and Liuun Xiaoqu in Guangzhou.
The TOD Standard assessment system consists in crediting 100 points according to 21 indicator and allotment of these points is approximately equal to level of influence of every indicator while implementing the transit-oriented development concept.
The system of assessment in points represents a way of quantitative measuring of degree, in which one or another project promote the land use and planning in support to use of public transport, biking and walking and minimization of private car use. This system may be useful in assessment of transport emissions of greenhouse gases and other negative consequences of motorization, stipulated by development forms.
In general, these indicators and calculation of points are intended for:
- Representation of general consensus between academic circles and practical experts regarding the aspects of urban development, planning and policy with the most impact on private vehicle use decrease.
- Awarding for adherence to the Standard of the project groups planning solutions, considerately oriented at public transport infrastructure already on the stage of design.
- Assurance of assessment ease on the basis of information that can be easily obtained and easily checked in independent way.
- Assurance of adherence to broad circle of urban development projects within multifaceted international context.
In conclusion, the system of assessment in points emphasizes two most important aspects of transit-oriented development, besides assurance of accessibility and maintenance of high public transport quality: possibility and appropriateness of walking around the city and minimization of private car use.
This Standard provides generalization of new priorities of modern urban development. They represent fundamental change of orientation from the old, unstable image of urban development with the accent on private car use, towards the new paradigm where urban forms and types of land use are closely integrated with rational, low-impact, systems of moving around the city, with main accent on the people: walking, biking and public transport.
Both “push factors”, inciting into movement away from the urban forms, oriented at private motorization, and “pull factors”, inciting into creation of cities that provide efficient opportunities for walking and biking, as well as use of public transport, have a critical importance for performance of necessary activities, to provide support to motorized population of the long-standing industrial countries in overcoming their car-dependence and so that the representatives of community of the new, middle class, being formed in the countries with developing economy, could right away step to a century of advanced lifestyles without the universal (or with minimal) motorization. One of such “push factors” was made the basis of Principle 8 / “Change” or “Shift”. It consists in the need to reduce space, provided for cars. This “push factor” becomes practically and politically feasible only in connection with providing attractive alternative – result of implementation of seven other principles that represent positive aspects of the new paradigm. For every principle, this Standard defines a range of necessary target indicators and also provides several measurable indicators – or metrics – for every target characteristic. The metrics were developed for ease of measuring and for maximum precision of assessment of how actual parameters correspond to the necessary target characteristics.
TOD Standard, Version 3.0 in English: